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StartNASACovid-19 information: UK set to supply autumn boosters to probably the most...

Covid-19 information: UK set to supply autumn boosters to probably the most weak

A person receives the first of two Pfizer/BioNTech covid-19 vaccines at Guy's Hospital in London, England, in December 2020

An individual receives the primary of two Pfizer/BioNTech covid-19 vaccines at Man’s Hospital in London, England, in December 2020

Newest coronavirus information as of noon 20 Could

The UK vaccine advisory group has really helpful that over-65s, folks in care properties, frontline well being and social care employees, and clinically weak folks aged 16 to 64 be provided a booster jab this autumn

“Final yr’s autumn booster vaccination programme supplied glorious safety in opposition to extreme covid-19, together with in opposition to the omicron variant,” Wei Shen Lim on the Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation mentioned in a press release, including the advice will permit the NHS and care properties to “begin the mandatory operational planning” to ship the jabs.

Throughout the UK, a spring booster is already obtainable to over-75s, care dwelling residents and other people aged 12 and over with suppressed immune methods.

The Scottish, English and Welsh governments have confirmed they’ll comply with this recommendation, whereas Northern Eire is but to announce its plans, in keeping with a BBC report.

Different coronavirus information

Covid-19 was the third main reason behind loss of life in England in April, accounting for six.1 per cent of all fatalities, in keeping with the Workplace for Nationwide Statistics. One month earlier, covid-19 was the sixth main reason behind loss of life.

As of 19 Could, North Korea had reported 2.24 million circumstances of “fever” since late April. Officers haven’t specified this is because of covid-19, nevertheless, fever is a key symptom of the an infection.

The nation imposed a nationwide lockdown earlier this month after reporting its first covid-19 case on 12 Could. Covid-19 testing is proscribed and there’s no official file of any of North Korea’s 25-million-strong-population being vaccinated.

Important details about coronavirus

The place did coronavirus come from? And different covid-19 questions answered

What’s covid-19?

Covid-19 vaccines: All the things you have to know concerning the main photographs

Lengthy covid: Do I’ve it, how lengthy will it final and might we deal with it?

What’s the fairest strategy to share covid-19 vaccines world wide?

Covid-19: The story of a pandemic

What to learn, watch and hearken to about coronavirus

New Scientist Weekly options updates and evaluation on the most recent developments within the covid-19 pandemic. Our podcast sees professional journalists from the journal talk about the most important science tales to hit the headlines every week – from know-how and house, to well being and the setting.

The Bounce is a BBC Radio 4 collection exploring how viruses can cross from animals into people to trigger pandemics. The primary episode examines the origins of the covid-19 pandemic.

Why Is Covid Killing Folks of Color? is a BBC documentary, which investigates what the excessive covid-19 loss of life charges in ethnic minority sufferers reveal about well being inequality within the UK.

Panorama: The Race for a Vaccine is a BBC documentary concerning the inside story of the event of the Oxford/AstraZeneca vaccine in opposition to covid-19.

Race Towards the Virus: Hunt for a Vaccine is a Channel 4 documentary which tells the story of the coronavirus pandemic by means of the eyes of the scientists on the frontline.

The New York Occasions is assessing the progress in growth of potential drug remedies for covid-19, and rating them for effectiveness and security.

People of COVID-19 is a undertaking highlighting the experiences of key employees on the frontline within the battle in opposition to coronavirus within the UK, by means of social media.

Stomach Mujinga: Looking for the Reality is a BBC Panorama investigation of the loss of life of transport employee Stomach Mujinga from covid-19, following stories she had been coughed and spat on by a buyer at London’s Victoria Station.

Coronavirus, Defined on Netflix is a brief documentary collection inspecting the coronavirus pandemic, the efforts to battle it and methods to handle its psychological well being toll.

Stopping the Subsequent Pandemic: How Covid-19 Can Assist Us Save Humanity by Debora Mackenzie is about how the pandemic occurred and why it should occur once more if we don’t do issues in a different way in future.

The Guidelines of Contagion is concerning the new science of contagion and the stunning methods it shapes our lives and behavior. The creator, Adam Kucharski, is an epidemiologist on the London Faculty of Hygiene and Tropical Medication, UK, and within the e-book he examines how illnesses unfold and why they cease.

Earlier updates

The World Health Organization headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland

The World Well being Group headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland

Richard Juilliart/Alamy

19 Could

An financial downturn and lack of reforms has left the world in no higher place to battle a brand new pandemic than earlier than covid-19 emerged, in keeping with the World Well being Group (WHO)

The world’s pandemic preparedness is identical or worse than it was earlier than covid-19, in keeping with a WHO report.

The report, led by former New Zealand prime minister Helen Clark and former Liberia president Ellen Johnson Sirleaf, accepted that some progress had been made, like strikes to create a worldwide well being safety fund contained in the WHO and elevated WHO funding.

However progress on reforms similar to worldwide well being laws are shifting too slowly, it added.

“We’ve got proper now the exact same instruments and the identical system that existed in December 2019 to reply to a pandemic risk,” Clark mentioned at a press convention. “And people instruments simply weren’t adequate.”

The report additionally suggests some measures that ought to be taken as quickly as attainable, together with an impartial well being threats council led by heads of state, a worldwide pandemic treaty and a global settlement to enhance pandemic preparedness.

The WHO’s annual World Well being Meeting will meet in Geneva subsequent week to deal with points raised within the report.

Different coronavirus information

Unvaccinated individuals who get better from the omicron variant might not have immunity in opposition to different covid-19 variants, similar to delta, in keeping with mouse fashions and a small human research.

Researchers at Gladstone Institutes in San Francisco, US, collected blood serum from mice seven days after they have been contaminated with completely different covid-19 variants.

In laboratory experiments, the serum collected after overcoming omicron solely protected in opposition to the omicron variant. Against this, the serum collected after an infection with delta successfully protected in opposition to the alpha, beta and delta variants, in addition to providing some safety in opposition to omicron.

These findings have been then supported in a research of 10 unvaccinated individuals who had recovered from omicron. Against this, vaccinated individuals who catch omicron develop some stage of immunity in opposition to all covid-19 variants of concern, the researchers present in a separate experiment.

North Korea has instructed folks use conventional medicines, similar to gargling salt water or ingesting natural tea, to cut back the fever and ache that may include covid-19. A state information company mentioned the unverified remedies are “efficient in prevention and treatment of the malicious illness,” a declare that isn’t supported by scientific analysis.

16 Could

Six weeks into the vaccine roll-out for this age group, fewer than one in 10 kids aged 5 to 11 have acquired their first dose

The 7 per cent determine compares with the 24 per cent of 12 to 15-year-olds in England who acquired a primary dose within the six weeks after they grew to become eligible for the vaccine in September 2021.

Youngsters hardly ever turn into critically ailing with SARS-CoV-2 virus, nevertheless, testing optimistic can disrupt their education or put them prone to lengthy covid.

Talking of 5 to 11 yr olds, Russell Viner at College Faculty London advised The Guardian: “It’s a vaccination that in all probability isn’t notably helpful for this age group.

“Nevertheless, it has a really, superb security profile. And on condition that we stay in a pandemic, there’s an argument that for particular person dad and mom, the stability of dangers would look like in the direction of vaccination.”

Throughout England, Oxfordshire has the best vaccine take-up amongst 5 to 11-year-olds at 12 per cent, whereas Knowsley in Merseyside has the bottom uptake at 3 per cent, in keeping with the most recent NHS statistics as much as 8 Could.

Two covid-19 vaccines are being provided to kids from 5 years previous throughout the UK. On 15 March 2022, Wales grew to become the primary UK nation to supply 5 to 11-year-olds a covid-19 vaccine, with 9.5 per cent of kids on this age group receiving their first dose by 4 Could.

In Scotland, 17 per cent of 5 to 11 yr olds had acquired their first dose as of three Could. In Northern Eire, simply 2 per cent of kids on this age group had acquired their first vaccine dose as of 5 Could, in keeping with Nationwide World.

“Getting vaccinated is a private selection between households and their kids, and we now have now despatched invitations to everybody eligible, offering dad and mom with data to permit them to make an knowledgeable choice, whereas they will additionally speak to their physician or an area healthcare skilled if they’ve questions,” an NHS spokesperson mentioned.

Different coronavirus information

Shanghai will purpose to return to regular life from 1 June after being in lockdown for greater than seven weeks.

“From June 1 to mid- and late June, so long as dangers of a rebound in infections are managed, we are going to totally implement epidemic prevention and management, normalise administration and totally restore regular manufacturing and life within the metropolis,” mentioned its deputy mayor Zong Ming.

Greater than 1 million folks in North Korea are affected by what its state media is asking a “fever”, a key covid-19 symptom. This comes lower than one week after North Korea’s chief Kim Jong Un confirmed the nation’s first covid-19 circumstances and deaths.

Of the 1 million fever circumstances, at the least 187,000 folks have been remoted and handled. It’s unclear whether or not these circumstances have examined optimistic for SARS-CoV-2 virus. North Korea, which is in lockdown, is believed to have restricted capability for covid-19 testing. There may be additionally no official file of any of its 25-million-strong-population being vaccinated. Kim as a substitute prioritised protecting covid-19 in a foreign country by way of strict border controls.

American flags on the National Mall in Washington, D.C., are lowered to half-mast to mark 1 million covid-19 deaths in the US

American flags on the Nationwide Mall in Washington, D.C., are lowered to half-mast to mark 1 million covid-19 deaths within the US


13 Could

The US has formally handed the ‘tragic milestone’, nevertheless, many extra deaths are anticipated to have occurred than have been recorded

The US has formally recorded greater than 1 million covid-19 deaths, President Joe Biden mentioned on 12 Could, calling the fatalities a “tragic milestone”.

“A million covid deaths, a million empty chairs across the household dinner desk, every irreplaceable losses,” mentioned Biden. “We should stay vigilant in opposition to this pandemic and do all the pieces we are able to to avoid wasting as many lives as attainable, as we now have with extra testing, vaccines, and coverings than ever earlier than.”

The size of the loss of life toll is much bigger than initially anticipated, with Anthony Fauci on the US Nationwide Institutes of Well being saying in March 2020 that between 100,000 and 200,000 folks may die from covid-19.

The US has a better official covid-19 loss of life toll than wherever else on the planet, however many fatalities are anticipated to go unrecorded in some international locations.

A current World Well being Group (WHO) report checked out “extra deaths”, outlined because the variety of fatalities from any trigger in 2020 and 2021 in contrast with earlier years. This included covid-19 deaths that weren’t recorded as such, in addition to individuals who died from different causes as a result of hospitals have been full amid the pandemic.

The report discovered that India had the best variety of general extra deaths, whereas Peru and Russia had the best variety of extra deaths for his or her inhabitants measurement.

Individually, 2 million covid-19 deaths have been recorded throughout the European area, which incorporates the UK, the WHO mentioned on 12 Could.

Different coronavirus information

Six covid-19 deaths have been formally reported in North Korea, the place the pandemic is spreading “explosively”, in keeping with the nation’s state media. North Korea imposed a nationwide lockdown on 12 Could, after acknowledging its first covid-19 circumstances.

Since late April, 350,000 folks in North Korea have been handled for fever, however the nation is believed to have little capability for covid-19 testing. It has not reported finishing up any covid-19 vaccinations.

Shanghai has mentioned it’s aiming to attain zero circumstances of covid-19 outdoors of tightly regulated quarantine zones by mid-Could. Instances outdoors the quarantine zones are an indicator of whether or not the outbreak is spreading. This comes after the WHO known as China’s zero-covid coverage unsustainable, as a result of the omicron variant is so transmissible.

An employee disinfects a supermarket in Pyongyang, North Korea in November 2021

An worker disinfects a grocery store in Pyongyang, North Korea, in November 2021

Jon Chol Jin/AP/Shutterstock

12 Could

North Korea has launched a nationwide lockdown after reporting its first covid-19 outbreak within the capital Pyongyang

The nation had by no means reported a covid-19 case earlier than 12 Could 2022. However many anticipate infections would have arisen in early 2020, earlier than North Korea closed its borders, given its journey and commerce relationships with China.

In line with the North Korean information outlet KCNA, folks with fevers in Pyongyang lately examined optimistic for the omicron sublineage BA.2, however state media has not confirmed the variety of circumstances or the place the infections might have originated.

There is no such thing as a official file of any of North Korea’s 25-million-strong-population being vaccinated.

In line with KCNA, state authorities, together with North Korea’s chief Kim Jong-un, recognise {that a} “most critical emergency case” has occurred, and Jong-un hopes to “rapidly treatment the infections in an effort to eradicate the supply of the virus”.

Different coronavirus information

Greater than half of people that have been hospitalised with covid-19 have at the least one symptom two years later, in keeping with a research that adopted 1192 folks residing in Wuhan, China, after they have been contaminated with SARS-CoV-2 virus in early 2020. The findings present the longest recognized follow-up of covid-19 signs to date, with earlier research spanning round one yr.

The contributors – who had a mean age of 57 – have been assessed by way of a six-minute strolling check, questionnaires and lung assessments at six months, 12 months and two years post-discharge.

Greater than two thirds (68 per cent) reported at the least one lengthy covid symptom six months after leaving hospital, lowering to 55 per cent after two years. Essentially the most generally reported symptom was fatigue or muscle weak spot.

“Our findings point out that for a sure proportion of hospitalised covid-19 survivors, whereas they might have cleared the preliminary an infection, greater than two years is required to get better totally from covid-19,” Bin Cao on the China-Japan Friendship Hospital in China mentioned in a press release.

The variety of reported covid-19 deaths that occurred within the African area between 2 and eight March was up 84 per cent on the earlier week, in keeping with the World Well being Group. The African area additionally noticed circumstances rise 12 per cent week-on-week.

Globally, the variety of reported covid-19 circumstances and deaths have been declining for the reason that finish of March.

Workers in personal protective equipment deliver food during the ongoing covid-19 lockdown in the Jing'an district of Shanghai in China on 7 May 2022

Staff in private protecting tools ship meals in the course of the ongoing covid-19 lockdown within the Jing’an district of Shanghai in China on 7 Could 2022

HECTOR RETAMAL/AFP by way of Getty Photographs

11 Could

Lifting China’s zero-covid coverage may set off a big omicron wave, however the World Well being Group (WHO) says sustaining the technique is “unsustainable”

Scrapping China’s zero-covid coverage may result in 1.55 million deaths and improve intensive care numbers by an element of 15, in keeping with a modelling research from Fudan College in China.

China launched the technique, which goals to rapidly lower off transmission to finish outbreaks, in August 2021 in response to the faster-spreading delta variant. Officers at the moment are mentioned to be evaluating the sustainability of their coverage.

Fudan’s mathematical mannequin, based mostly on a totally vaccinated inhabitants with no mass testing or motion restrictions in place, predicts that lifting the zero-covid technique may result in as many as 5.1 million hospitalisations, 2.7 million intensive care unit admissions and 1.55 million deaths by September 2022.

Folks over 60 who’re unvaccinated would make up 74 per cent of those deaths, the mannequin predicts.

However the WHO doubts whether or not protecting zero-covid insurance policies in place is sustainable, because the highly-transmissible omicron variant continues to drive circumstances in China.

“Once we speak concerning the zero-covid technique, we don’t assume that it’s sustainable, contemplating the behaviour of the virus now and what we anticipate sooner or later,” WHO’s director-general Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus mentioned at a press convention.

“We’ve got mentioned about this challenge with Chinese language consultants and we indicated that the strategy won’t be sustainable.

“Transiting into one other technique will probably be crucial.”

Different coronavirus information

Pregnant people who find themselves vaccinated in opposition to covid-19 are 15 per cent much less prone to have a stillbirth than their unvaccinated counterparts, in keeping with a meta-analysis of 23 research protecting greater than 117,000 vaccinated pregnant folks.

Vaccination in being pregnant can be 90 per cent efficient at stopping covid-19 an infection, with no proof of an elevated threat of problems, similar to a decrease birthweight or postpartum haemorrhage, the research discovered.

New Zealand has recorded greater than 1 million covid-19 circumstances, in keeping with its ministry of well being. Over 986,000 of those circumstances occurred in early 2022, with the federal government loosening its zero-covid technique in March.

Greater than 20 per cent of New Zealand’s 5-million-strong inhabitants is due to this fact recognized to have been contaminated, nevertheless, modelling suggests the true quantity might be thrice bigger.

A Moderna covid-19 booster jab is prepared at a vaccination site in London in April 2022

A Moderna covid-19 booster jab is ready at a vaccination web site in London in April 2022

SOPA Photographs Restricted/Alamy

10 Could

Research suggests a fourth dose of the Pfizer/BioNTech or Moderna vaccine typically offers elevated safety from covid-19

A fourth dose of an mRNA covid-19 vaccine may present a “substantial increase in antibody ranges and mobile immunity”, in keeping with a research performed as a part of the College of Southampton’s Cov-Enhance vaccine trial and revealed in The Lancet Infectious Ailments.

A fourth vaccine has been rolled out throughout the UK for folks aged 75 and over, and those that are immunocompromised. Off the again of the Cov-Enhance research, a bigger group of individuals within the UK could also be provided a second booster jab later this yr.

Within the trial, 166 contributors who had acquired a 3rd dose of the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine, following two preliminary Pfizer/BioNTech or College of Oxford/AstraZeneca doses in June 2021, have been both given a full dose of Pfizer/BioNTech or a half dose of Moderna as a fourth jab, about seven months after their third vaccination.

Outcomes reveal the fourth jab typically provided larger antibody ranges than a 3rd dose and supplied notably robust safety for these aged 70 and over.

Nevertheless, the research additionally discovered that some contributors maintained larger ranges of immunity after a 3rd dose and solely acquired a restricted increase from a fourth jab, suggesting there might be a ceiling to the immune response.

If this ceiling impact is seen in additional research, it may recommend {that a} fourth booster shot is much less efficient in those that have lately been contaminated with covid-19 or with a window shorter than seven months between their third and fourth vaccine doses.

“These outcomes underline the advantages of probably the most weak folks receiving present spring boosters and provides confidence for any potential autumn booster programme within the UK,” lead creator Saul Faust mentioned in a press release.

Different coronavirus information

Lockdowns and social distancing attributable to the pandemic led to a “small however vital improve” in loneliness worldwide, in keeping with a meta-analysis of 34 research, protecting 200,000 contributors throughout 4 continents.

Chatting with The Impartial, Mareike Ernst, of Johannes Gutenberg-College Mainz in Germany, mentioned: “Given the small impact sizes, dire warnings a couple of ‘loneliness pandemic’ could also be overblown. Nevertheless, as loneliness constitutes a threat for untimely mortality and psychological and bodily well being, it ought to be intently monitored.”

Simply 51 per cent of people that have examined optimistic for covid-19 are following isolation tips in England, in keeping with figures for 28 March to 2 April 2022 issued by the Workplace for Nationwide Statistics (ONS).

The authorized requirement to self-isolate after testing optimistic for covid-19 was eliminated in England on the finish of February 2022. In April, new isolation steerage was issued for individuals who examined optimistic, urging them to keep away from contact with different folks till they now not had signs or felt unwell. Related steerage is in place in the remainder of the UK.

“Solely half of those that examined optimistic for covid-19 adhered totally to self-isolation steerage,” Tim Gibb at ONS mentioned in a press release. “Whereas it is a related proportion to what we reported in mid-March 2022, it nevertheless represents a major lower to ranges of adherence seen earlier this yr.”

An aerial view of a burial site for people who died with covid-19 at the Nossa Senhora Aparecida cemetery in Manaus, in the Amazon forest in Brazil, taken on 21 November 2020

An aerial view of a burial web site for individuals who died with covid-19 on the Nossa Senhora Aparecida cemetery in Manaus, within the Amazon forest in Brazil, taken on 21 November 2020

MICHAEL DANTAS/AFP by way of Getty Photographs

5 Could

The covid-19 pandemic immediately or not directly triggered 14.9 million deaths as of the tip of 2021, in keeping with a WHO report

In a significant evaluation, officers from the World Well being Group (WHO) calculated the variety of pandemic-related deaths that occurred globally between 1 January 2020 and 31 December 2022.

The researchers mixed nationwide loss of life knowledge for every nation with statistics from scientific research carried out in the identical nation. Additionally they used a statistical mannequin to account for deaths which will have been in any other case neglected.

The group then estimated the variety of fatalities that may have been anticipated had the pandemic not occurred, evaluating the 2 figures to present an “extra” of 14.9 million.

This extra contains deaths immediately attributable to SARS-CoV-2 virus, in addition to people who have been not directly attributable to the pandemic, similar to individuals who died prematurely as a result of healthcare methods have been overwhelmed.

In line with John Hopkins College knowledge, simply over 6.2 million folks have died of covid-19 worldwide, not considering the pandemic’s oblique deaths.

“These sobering knowledge not solely level to the affect of the pandemic but in addition to the necessity for all international locations to put money into extra resilient well being methods that may maintain important well being companies throughout crises, together with stronger well being data methods,” WHO director-general Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus mentioned in a press release.

Different coronavirus information

Multiple in 10 folks hospitalised with covid-19 may have extreme neurological signs, a research suggests.

Researchers at Boston College studied greater than 16,000 individuals who have been hospitalised with covid-19 in 24 international locations between March 2020 and March 2021. Almost 13 per cent of the contributors developed a critical neurological situation – like a stroke, seizure or encephalopathy, an umbrella time period for illness that alters the mind’s perform or construction  – at admission or throughout their hospitalisation.

Combating off SARS-CoV-2 virus might quickly increase your safety in opposition to different coronavirus strains, together with people who trigger frequent cold-like signs.

In a small research, scientists at Scripps Analysis within the US discovered serum samples from individuals who had lately fought off SARS-CoV-2 virus reacted extra strongly to the spike proteins of different coronavirus strains than samples taken from folks pre-covid-19.

A stock image of a medic assessing an MRI brain scan

A inventory picture of a medic assessing an MRI mind scan

xijian/Getty Photographs

3 Could

Folks hospitalised with covid-19 might lose 10 IQ factors, equal to the pure cognitive decline that happens between 50 and 70 years previous

Covid-19 may cause lasting cognitive and psychological well being points, together with mind fog, fatigue and even post-traumatic stress dysfunction. To raised perceive the size of the issue, researchers on the College of Cambridge analysed 46 individuals who have been hospitalised because of the an infection between March and July 2020.

The contributors underwent cognitive assessments on common six months after their preliminary sickness. These outcomes have been in contrast in opposition to these of greater than 66,000 folks from the final inhabitants.

These hospitalised with covid-19 scored worse on verbal analogical reasoning assessments, which assess a person’s capability to recognise relationships between concepts and assume methodically.

Additionally they recorded slower processing speeds. Earlier research recommend glucose is much less effectively utilized by the a part of the mind answerable for consideration, complicated problem-solving and dealing reminiscence after covid-19.

Scores and response speeds improved over time, nevertheless, any restoration was gradual at greatest, in keeping with the researchers.

This cognitive impairment in all probability has a number of causes, together with insufficient blood provide to the mind, blood vessel blockage and microscopic bleeds attributable to SARS-CoV-2 virus, in addition to harm triggered by an overactive immune system, they added.

“Round 40,000 folks have been by means of intensive care with covid-19 in England alone and lots of extra could have been very sick, however not admitted to hospital,” Adam Hampshire at Imperial Faculty London mentioned in a press release.

“This implies there may be numerous folks on the market nonetheless experiencing issues with cognition many months later.”

Different coronavirus information

The organic mechanism behind a uncommon and extreme covid-19 response seen in some kids might have been uncovered by researchers on the Murdoch Youngsters’s Analysis Institute in Melbourne, Australia.

Medical doctors have to date been unable to establish why some kids develop multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS) in response to covid-19, which might trigger signs similar to fever, belly ache and coronary heart illness.

After analysing the blood of 33 kids with MIS, the researchers recognized 85 proteins particular to the situation, probably aiding prognosis and opening the door to new remedies.

Covid-19 might worsen bronchial asthma in kids, in keeping with a research of greater than 61,000 folks aged two to 17 with the respiratory situation within the US. The 7700 contributors who examined optimistic for covid-19 went on to have extra asthma-related hospitalisations, emergency inhaler use and steroid remedies within the six months post-infection, in contrast with the contributors with out a confirmed covid-19 an infection.

How covid-19 impacts folks with bronchial asthma is considerably muddled. In November 2020, a research discovered folks with bronchial asthma could also be much less prone to develop covid-19 problems, probably because of their steroid use or lowered publicity by way of shielding.

See earlier updates from April 2022, March 2022, February 2022, January 2022, November to December 2021, September to October 2021, July to September 2021, June to July 2021Could 2021, April to March 2021, February 2021, January 2021, November to December 2020, and March to November 2020.

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