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Regular Flora (Microbiota) of Mouth and Gastrointestinal Tract


Regular floras are the microorganisms which might be always current within the pores and skin and mucous membrane of each human with out inflicting any an infection in a wholesome particular person. Solely micro organism and fungus are thought-about regular flora. They’re current in comparatively steady situations, both for a brief or particular interval or all through the lifetime of a person. Their composition could range on completely different people.

Regular Flora (Microbiota) of Mouth and Gastrointestinal Tract

The gastrointestinal tract (GI tract or alimentary canal) is a passage of the digestive system for meals ingestion, mechanical and chemical digestion, and digestive waste excretion. It’s a tract from mouth to anus together with the oral (buccal) cavity, oropharynx, esophagus, abdomen, small gut, and huge gut. These numerous components have numerous physicochemical properties, therefore a large range of microflora are discovered within the GI tract. From mouth to anus, each a part of the GI tract is stuffed with completely different species of the conventional microbiota. Intestinal flora comprises greater than 400 species of micro organism.

Listing of Regular Flora of Mouth and Gastrointestinal Tract

Gram-Optimistic Micro organism Gram-Destructive Micro organism Others
Streptococcus spp.
Lactobacillus spp.
Staphylococcus spp.
Clostridium spp.
Bacillus spp.
Corynebacterium spp.
Actinomyces spp. 
Propionibacterium spp.
Rothia spp.
Eubacterium spp.
Gemella spp.
Peptostreptococcus spp. 
E. coli
Klebsiella spp.
Enterobacter spp.
Enterococcus spp.
Citrobacter spp.
Vibrio spp.
Campylobacter spp.
Helicobacter pylori 
Proteus spp.
Fusobacterium spp.
Neisseria spp.
Moraxella spp.
Kingella spp.
Actinobacillus spp.
Bacteroides spp.
Porphyromonas spp.
Prevotella spp.
Selenomonas spp.
Cardiobacterium spp.
Eikenella spp.
Veillonella spp. 
Leminorella spp. 
Morganella spp. 
Providencia spp. 
Yersinia spp. 
Serratia spp.
Candida spp.

Regular Flora on Particular Location of Mouth and Gastrointestinal Tract

Location Regular Microflora
Mouth and enamel Streptococcus spp., Neisseria spp., Lactobacillus spp., Veillonella spp.,  Staphylococcus spp., Peptostreptococcus spp., Treponema spp.,  
Oropharynx Peptostreptococcus spp., Veillonella spp., Actinomyces spp., Fusobacterium spp., Streptococcus spp., Corynebacterium spp.,  Lactobacillus spp., Neisseria spp., Staphylococcus spp., Gemella spp., Moraxella spp., Kingella spp., Cardiobacterium spp., Eikenella spp., Actinobacillus spp., Propionibacterium spp., Bacteroides spp., Porphyromonas spp., Rothia spp., Prevotella spp., Selenomonas spp.,
Esophagus Streptococcus spp., Candida spp., Bacteroides spp., 
Abdomen    Lactobacillus spp., Streptococcus spp., Helicobacter pylori
Small Gut  Lactobacillus spp., Streptococcus spp., Peptostreptococcus spp., Porphyromonas spp., Prevotella spp.,
Giant Gut Bifidobacterium spp., Bacteroides spp., Eubacterium spp., Enterococcus spp., E. coli, Citrobacter spp., Klebsiella spp., Enterobacter spp., Proteus spp., Streptococcus spp., Actinomyces spp., Peptostreptococcus spp., Gemella spp., Bacillus spp., Clostridium spp., Vibrio spp., Fusobacterium spp., Porphyromonas spp., Prevotella spp., Leminorella spp., Morganella spp., Providencia spp., Yersinia spp., Serratia spp., 

Gram +ve and Gram -ve Micro organism of Mouth and Gastrointestinal Tract

Staphylococcus spp.

  • Gram-positive
  • Catalase-positive 
  • Coagulase optimistic and coagulase-negative
  • Cardio
  • Cocci micro organism 
  • Household Staphylococcaceae
  • Recognized for producing grape-like clusters below a microscope 

Staphylococci are the transient flora of the mouth and oropharynx.  

S. epidermidis and S. aureus are probably the most dominant species within the mouth and oropharynx. They’re particularly current in kids. S. epidermidis enters within the nasal and oral cavity throughout beginning from vaginal pores and skin. Throughout breastfeeding, S. epidermidis is transferred to the mouth from the mom’s breast pores and skin. 

Streptococcus spp.

  • Gram-positive
  • Anaerobic and facultative anaerobic 
  • Catalase-negative 
  • Cocci micro organism 
  • Household – Streptococcaceae 
  • A attribute association of cells within the type of a series of spheres below a microscope

They’re current in each a part of the GI tract. They’re largely thought-about transient flora. 

S. agalactiae (Group B Streptococci), S. mutans, S. mitis, S. oralis, S. parasanguis,  S. sanguis, S. salivarius, S. cristatus, S. constellatus, S. anginosus group (viridans Streptococci), and so forth. are generally reported species in GI tract. 

Acid tolerant species of Streptococcus like acid tolerant strains of S. anginosus are additionally discovered within the abdomen. 

Clostridium spp.

  • Gram-positive 
  • Rod-shaped 
  • Strictly anaerobic
  • Spore-forming micro organism 
  • Household – Clostridiaceae 

Clostridium clusters XIVa and IV are the predominant commensal micro organism within the intestine, masking about 10 – 40% of complete intestine micro organism. C. aerotolerans, C. aminophilus, C. aminovalericum, C. clostridiiforme, C. coccoides, C. nexile, C. oroticum, C. polysaccharolyticum, C. symbiosum, C. leptum, C. difficile pressure 630, C. sordelli, C. absonum, C. butyricum, C. paraputrificum, C. xylanolyticum, and so forth. are frequent species in human gut.   

Clostridium perfringens are additionally the conventional flora of the small gut and the big gut.

Bacillus spp.

  • Gram-positive
  • Rod-shaped
  • Motile
  • Obligate cardio and a few facultative anaerobic
  • Spore forming
  • Household – Bacillaceae

B. clausii, B. licheniformis, B. coagulans are some generally remoted intestinal flora. 

Corynebacterium spp.

  • Gram-positive 
  • Rod-shaped (club-shaped), 
  • Cardio micro organism 
  • Household –  Corynebacteriaceae
  • The attribute options of excessive mesodiaminopimelic acid and extremely repeated arabinogalactan

C. matruchotii is a traditional inhabitant of oral cavity. Corynebacterium species are additionally discovered within the massive gut.    

Actinomyces spp.

  • Gram-positive
  • Rod-shaped (branched)
  • Obligate anaerobic and facultatively anaerobic
  • Endospore forming
  • Household – Actinomycetaceae

A. viscous, A. naeslundii, A. israelii, and so forth. are generally discovered within the mouth. Some species are additionally discovered within the small and the big gut as transient flora. 

Helicobacter pylori 

  • Gram-negative 
  • Helical 
  • Microaerophilic 
  • Epsilonproteobacteria 
  • Household – Helicobaceteriaceae 

They’re tailored to tolerate the acidity of a human abdomen. They’re regular flora of the abdomen and the duodenum.  

Fusobacterium spp.

  • Gram-negative
  • Anaerobic
  • Non-sporing
  • Rod-shaped with pointed ends
  • Household – Fusobacteriaceae

Fusobacterium spp. is regular flora of the mouth and gut. They’re present in comparatively small quantity.  F. nucleatum is discovered within the mouth. 

Propionibacterium spp.

  • Gram-positive
  • Rod-shaped
  • Anaerobic
  • Household – Propionibacteriaceae
  • Distinctive potential to provide propionic acid utilizing transcarboxylase enzymes

Propionibacterium spp. are regular flora within the massive gut. P. acidifaciens and P. propionicus are current within the oral cavity of comparatively only a few individuals.

Campylobacter spp.

  • Gram-negative
  • S-shaped (comma formed)
  • Microaerophilic
  • Motile
  • Non-sporing
  • Household – Campylobacteriaceae

Campylobacter spp. are discovered within the massive gut and mouth. C. sputorum, C. coli. C. upsaliensis, and so forth. are some species of commensal Campylobacter

Rothia spp.

  • Gram-positive 
  • Rod-shaped 
  • Non-motile
  • Cardio micro organism 
  • Household – Micrococcaceae 

They’re regular flora of the mouth and respiratory tract. R. mucilaginosa, R. dentocariosa are regular flora of mouth. Rothia spp. are additionally remoted from distal ileum and even within the abdomen. 

Actinobacillus spp.

  • Gram-negative
  • Rod-shaped or oval (coccobacilli)
  • Non-motile
  • Non-sporing
  • Facutative anaerobic or cardio

A. actinomycetemcomitans is human oral microflora. 

Eubacterium spp.

  • Gram-positive 
  • Pleomorphic rod 
  • Cardio or anaerobic 
  • Motile or non-motile micro organism 
  • Household –  Eubacteriaceae

Eubacterium are regular microflora of the mouth and the GI tract. They’re among the many dominant anaerobic species within the gut; the second most ample bacterial genera within the massive gut. E. aerofaciens, E. cylindroides, E. lentum, and E. rectale are the most typical species within the massive gut. 

Gemella spp.

  • Gram-positive, 
  • Facultatively anaerobic 
  • Diplococci micro organism 
  • Household – Staphylococcaceae 

Gemella are a typical species within the oral cavity and human gut. 

Peptostreptococcus spp. 

  • Gram-positive
  • Spherical (in pair or chain)
  • Anaerobic
  • Non-sporing
  • Motile
  • Household – Peptostreptococcaceae

Peptostreptococcus are among the many most ample anaerobic micro organism within the human GI tract. P. intermedius is the dominant species within the human gut. 

Lactobacillus spp.

  • Gram-positive
  • Rod-shaped
  • Non-motile
  • Non-sporing
  • Anaerobic or Microaerophilic
  • Lactic acid fermenting micro organism (LAB)
  • Household – Lactobacillaceae

They’re regular flora of the mouth, GI tract, and the feminine reproductive tract. Greater than 50 species of Lactobacillus are discovered within the gut of a wholesome people. L. casei, L. delbruckeii, L. murinus, L. plantarum, L. rhamnosus, and L. ruminus are probably the most ample species.  

E. coli

  • Gram-negative 
  • Rod-shaped 
  • Motile
  • Lactose fermenting 
  • Facultatively anaerobic 
  • Mesophillic coliform micro organism 
  • Household – Enterobacteriaceae
  • Genus – Escherichia  

Non-pathogenic strains of E. coli are probably the most frequent cardio microflora species of the human intestines. 

Klebsiella spp.

  • Gram-negative 
  • Rod-shaped 
  • Non-motile
  • Encapsulated
  • Lactose fermenting 
  • Facultatively anaerobic 
  • Mesophillic coliform micro organism 
  • Household – Enterobacteriaceae

Being a member of Enterobacteriaceae, it is not uncommon within the gut of vertebrates together with people. Ok. oxytoca, Ok. pneumoniae are discovered within the gut. 

Enterobacter spp.

  • Gram-negative
  • Rod-shaped 
  • Motile
  • Lactose fermenting 
  • Facultatively anaerobic 
  • Mesophillic coliform micro organism 
  • Household – Enterobacteriaceae

Enterobacter is regular microflora of the small and the big gut. E. cloacae, E. ludwigii, E. hormaechei, E. cancerogenus, E. massiliensis are commensals in gut. 

Citrobacter spp.

  • Gram-negative
  • Rod-shaped
  • Lactose fermenting
  • Principally motile, few non-motile
  • Coliform
  • Gammaproteobacteria
  • Household – Enterobacteriaceae
  • Particular potential to make use of citrate as the only real carbon supply

Citrobacter are regular flora of the human GI tract. C. freundii, C. europaeus, C. koseri, C. sedlaki, C. werkmanii, C. gillenii, C. braakii, C. murliniae  are commensals of human gut.  

Vibrio spp. 

  • Gram-negative 
  • Rod-shaped (comma-shaped) 
  • Motile 
  • Non-sporing 
  • Facultative anaerobic 
  • Gammaproteobacteria 
  • Household – Vibrionaceae 
  • Attribute 2 chromosomes

V. parahaemolyticus are present in a low quantity of some individuals. V. sputorum is current within the mouth of some individuals as regular microflora. 

Proteus spp.

  • Gram-negative 
  • Rod-shaped 
  • Cardio and facultative anaerobic 
  • Motile micro organism 
  • Household – Enterobacteriaceae 
  • Capability to provide swarming colonies

P. vulgarisP. mirabilis, and P. penneri are current within the human GI tract, however in a really low numbers comprising solely about 0.05% of complete intestine microflora. 

Enterococcus spp.

  • Gram-positive 
  • Facultatively anaerobic 
  • Lactose fermenting 
  • Cocci (diplococci) micro organism 
  • Household –  Enterococcaceae 
  • Capability to tolerate bile salt concentrations as much as 40%

Enterococci are commensals of the GI tract. E. faecalis and E. faecium are the most typical species of Enterococcus within the human gut.    

Leminorella spp. 

  • Gram-negative
  • Rod-shaped
  • Gammaproteobacteria
  • Household – Enterobacteriaceae

Leminorella is a brand new genus within the Enterobacteriaceae household. L. richardii and L. grimontii colonize the human GI tract. 

Providencia spp. 

  • Gram-negative
  • Rod-shaped
  • Motile
  • Gammaproteobacteria 
  • Household – Morganellaceae

Providencia is current as a traditional intestinal flora in comparatively low numbers in some individuals. P. rettgeri, P. alaclifaciens, P. rustigianii are some frequent species.

Yersinia spp. 

  • Gram-negative 
  • Coccobacilli 
  • Facultative anaerobic 
  • Gammaproteobacteria 
  • Household – Yersiniaceae

Yersinia is discovered within the small and huge gut of people. Y. aleksiciae, Y. bercovieri, Y. enterocolitica, Y. frederiksenii, Y. rohdei, Y. kristensenii are frequent Yersinia species that colonize within the human gastrointestinal tract. 

Bacteroides spp.

  • Gram-negative
  • Rod-shaped
  • Bile resistant
  • Non-sporing
  • Motile or non-motile
  • Obligate anaerobic 
  • Household –  Bacteroidaceae 

Bacteroides are a part of the human gastrointestinal microflora. B. gingivalis, B. intermedius, B. fragilis, B. pneumosintes, B. melaninogenicus, and B. thetaiotaomicron are some frequent species within the mouth and huge gut.  

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